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The American Revolution

“Give me Liberty or Give Me Death!” , Patrick Henry, March 1775, at the third Virginia convention, held in St. John’s Church in Richmond, Virginia
“Give me Liberty or Give Me Death!”  Patrick Henry March 1775 at the third Virginia convention held in St. John’s Church in Richmond Virginia.

American Revolution was the struggle of thirteen American colonies against Great Britain. The term American Revolution also includes the American War of Independence and resulted in the formation of the United States of America.  The American Revolution decided if we were to be an independent nation and the Civil War decided what kind of nation we would be.

How could the Americans ever hope defeat the mighty British Empire in a military conflict?

Americans faced seemingly impossible obstacles. When the guns fired at Lexington and Concord in 1775 there was not yet even a Continental Army. Those battles were fought by local militias. Few Americans had any military experience and there was no method of training supplying or paying an army.

Moreover a majority of Americans opposed the war in 1775. Many historians believe only about a third of all Americans supported a war against the British at that time.

Further the Colonies had a poor track record of working together.

How then could a ragtag group of patriots defeat the British?

When the possibility of a clash with the British became real New England farmers began to arm themselves and train for battle. These troops were dubbed minutemen because they could be ready to fight in a minute. This monument to the minutemen stands in Concord Massachusetts.

 

Early Battles

The Battle of Bunker Hill
The Battle of Bunker Hill was not a military victory for the colonial forces but it served as an important morale booster. The colonists inflicted heavy casualties on the larger more powerful British forces.

The early stages of war in 1775 can be best described as British military victories and American moral triumphs. The British routed the minutemen at Lexington but the relentless colonists unleashed brutal sniper fire on the British returning to Boston from Concord.

In June 1775 the colonists failed to prevail at Bunker Hill but inflicted heavy casualties on a vastly superior military force. A year later in 1776 while the British occupied New York Washington led his army to two surprise victories at Trenton and Princeton that uplifted the morale of the patriots.

Regardless by 1777 the British occupied Philadelphia the seat of the Continental Congress and sent that body into hiding. The British also controlled New York City and pretty much had their way in the waters along the Eastern Seaboard. In fact there was no Continental Navy to speak of at this time. Meanwhile the British began mounting a southward attack from Canada into upstate New York. This threatened to cut New England off from the rest of the Colonies.

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Saratoga and Valley Forge: The Tide Turns

http://b5f294.medialib.glogster.com/thumbnails/7b/7bd9cc6689e67d413907e7b655e2647a282b470333f6fdacb632f992fc6b98ad/battle-of-saratoga-source.jpgThe Battle of Saratoga in northern New York served as a critical turning point. The British attempt to capture the Hudson River Valley ended with their surrender to General Horatio Gates in October. Washington having lost Philadelphia led his troops to Valley Forge to spend the winter. None of the worlds powers had come to the aid of the patriot cause — yet.

In early 1778 the French agreed to recognize American independence and formed a permanent alliance with the new nation. Military help and sizable stores of much-needed gunpowder soon arrived. The tide was beginning to turn.

The Battle of Saratoga was the turning point of the Revolutionary War.

The scope of the victory is made clear by a few key facts: On October 17 1777 5895 British and Hessian troops surrendered their arms. General John Burgoyne had lost 86 percent of his expeditionary force that had triumphantly marched into New York from Canada in the early summer of 1777.

Divide and Conquer

The divide-and-conquer strategy that Burgoyne presented to British ministers in London was to invade America from Canada by advancing down the Hudson Valley to Albany. There he would be joined by other British troops under the command of Sir William Howe. Howe would be bringing his troops north from New Jersey and New York City.

Burgoyne believed that this bold stroke would not only isolate New England from the other American colonies but achieve command of the Hudson River and demoralize Americans and their would-be allies such as the French.

In June 1777 Burgoynes army of over 7000 men (half of whom were British troops and the other half Hessian troops from Brunswick and Hesse-Hanau) departed from St. Johns on Lake Champlain bound for Fort Ticonderoga at the southern end of the lake.

As the army proceeded southward Burgoyne drafted and had his men distribute a proclamation that among other things included the statement I have but to give stretch to the Indian forces under my direction and they amount to thousands which implied that Britains enemies would suffer attacks from Native Americans allied to the British.

More than any other act during the campaign this threat and subsequent widely reported atrocities such as the scalping of Jane McCrea stiffened the resolve of the Americans to do whatever it took to assure that the threat did not become reality.

Round One to the British

The American forces at Fort Ticonderoga recognized that once the British mounted artillery on high ground near the fort Ticonderoga would be indefensible. A retreat from the Fort was ordered and the Americans floated troops cannon and supplies across Lake Champlain to Mount Independence.

From there the army set out for Hubbardton where the British and German troops caught up with them and gave battle. Round one to the British.

Burgoyne continued his March towards Albany but miles to the south a disturbing event occurred. Sir William Howe decided to attack the Rebel capital at Philadelphia rather than deploying his army to meet up with Burgoyne and cut off New England from the other Colonies. Meanwhile as Burgoyne marched south his supply lines from Canada were becoming longer and less reliable.

I have the honor to inform your Lordship that the enemy [were] dislodged from Ticonderoga and Mount Independent on the 6th instant and were driven on the same day beyond Skenesborough on the right and the Humerton [Hubbardton] on the left with the loss of 128 pieces of cannon all their armed vessels and bateaux the greatest part of their baggage and ammunition provision and military stores …    – General John Burgoyne letter to Lord George Germain (1777)

Bennington: the compleatest Victory gaind this War

Burgoyne's route
As Burgoyne and his troops marched down from Canada the British managed to win several successful campaigns as well as infuriate the colonists. By the time the Burgoyne reached Saratoga Americans had successfully rallied support to beat him.

In early August word came that a substantial supply depot at Bennington Vermont was alleged to be lightly guarded and Burgoyne dispatched German troops to take the depot and return with the supplies. This time however stiff resistance was encountered and American general John Stark surrounded and captured almost 500 German soldiers. One observer reported Bennington as the compleatest Victory gaind this War.

Burgoyne now realized too late that the Loyalists (Tories) who were supposed to have come to his aid by the hundreds had not appeared and that his Native American allies were also undependable.

American general Schuyler proceed to burn supplies and crops in the line of Burgoynes advance so that the British were forced to rely on their ever-longer and more and more unreliable supply line to Canada. On the American side General Horatio Gates arrived in New York to take command of the American forces.

 

 

 

 

Battle of Freemans Farm

Mask letter
Mask letters invisible ink and secret code are the tricks of the trade for any good spy. Loyalist Henry Clinton used a mask letter to communicate with Burgoyne.

By mid-September with the fall weather reminding Burgoyne that he could not winter where he was and needed to proceed rapidly toward Albany the British army crossed the Hudson and headed for Saratoga.

On September 19 the two forces met at Freemans Farm north of Albany. While the British were left as masters of the field they sustained heavy human losses. Years later American Henry Dearborn expressed the sentiment that we had something more at stake than fighting for six Pence pr Day.

 

 

Major Battles of the American Revolution

Date Battle American Commander(s) British Commander
April 19 1775 Lexington-Concord Capt. John Parker Lt. Col. Francis Smith
June 17 1775 Bunker (Breeds) Hill Gen. Israel Putnam and Col. William Prescott Gen. William Howe
Dec. 31 1775 Quebec Gen. Richard Montgomery Gen. Guy Carleton
Aug. 27 1776 Long Island Gen. George Washington Gen. William Howe
Oct. 26 1776 White Plains Gen. George Washington Gen. William Howe
Dec. 26 1776 Trenton Gen. George Washington Col. Johann Rall
Sept. 11 1777 Brandywine Gen. George Washington Gen. William Howe
Sept. 19 1777 Saratoga (Freemans Farm) Gen. Horatio Gates Gen. John Burgoyne
Oct. 4 1777 Germantown Gen. George Washington Gen. William Howe
Oct. 7 1777 Saratoga Gen. Horatio Gates Gen. John Burgoyne
Dec. 5 1777 White Marsh Gen. George Washington Gen. William Howe
June 8 1778 Monmouth Courthouse Gen. George Washington Gen. Henry Clinton
Sept. 16 1779 Siege of Savannah Gen. Benjamin Lincoln Gen. Augustine Prevost
March 29 1780 Siege of Charlestown Gen. Benjamin Lincoln Gen. Henry Clinton
Sept. 28 1781 Siege of Yorktown Gen. George Washington and Gen. Rochambeau Gen. Charles Cornwallis

A Word about Spies

Spies worked for both British and American armies. Secret messages and battle plans were passed in a variety of creative ways including being sewn into buttons. Patriots and loyalists penned these secret letters either in code with invisible ink or as mask letters.

Here is an example of Loyalist Sir Henry Clintons mask letter. The letter on the left is the mask letter with the secret message decoded; to the right is an excerpt of the full letter.

Benedict Arnold

Benedict Arnold is best remembered as a traitor; an American patriot who spied for the British during the American Revolution. But there is more to his story than this sad event.

Arnold was a fierce patriot during the Stamp Act crisis and the early years of the American Revolution. During the battles of Lexington and Concord Arnold worked with Ethan Allen to capture Fort Ticonderoga and was named a colonel.

As a member of George Washingtons Continental Army he led a failed attack on Quebec but was nonetheless named brigadier general in 1776.

His next big moment came at the Battle of Saratoga. Here Benedict Arnold was instrumental in stopping the advance of the British and in obtaining the surrender of British General John Burgoyne.

During the Battle of Freemans Farm Arnolds leg was severely wounded when pinned beneath his horse. (Both Arnold and his leg survived there is a monument to his leg at Saratoga National Historic Park.)

Over the next two years Benedict Arnold remained a patriot but was upset and embittered at what he felt was a lack of his recognition and contribution to the war. In 1778 following British evacuation of Philadelphia George Washington appointed Arnold military commander of the city.

This is where the story gets interesting.

In Philadelphia Benedict Arnold was introduced to and fell in love with Margaret (Peggy) Shippen a young well-to-do loyalist who was half his age. Ms. Shippen had previously been friendly with John André a British spy who had been in Philadelphia during the occupation as the adjutant to the British commander in chief Sir Henry Clinton. It is believed that Peggy introduced Arnold to André.

Meanwhile Benedict Arnolds reputation while in Philadelphia was beginning to tarnish. He was accused of using public wagons for private profit and of being friendly to Loyalists. Faced with a court-martial for corruption he resigned his post on March 19 1779.

Following his resignation Arnold began a correspondence with John André now chief of British intelligence services. But Arnold had also maintained his close relationship with George Washington and still had access to important information. Over the next few months Benedict Arnold continued his talks with André and agreed to hand over key information to the British. Specifically Arnold offered to hand over the most strategic fortress in America: West Point.

Arnold and André finally met in person and Arnold handed over information to the British spy. But unfortunately for both men André was caught and Arnolds letter was found. Arnolds friend George Washington was heartbroken over the news but was forced to deal with the treacherous act. While Benedict Arnold escaped to British-occupied New York where he was protected from punishment.

John André was executed for spying.

Benedict Arnold was named brigadier general by the British government and sent on raids to Virginia. Following Cornwalliss surrender at Yorktown in 1781 Arnold and his family sailed to Britain with his family. He died in London in 1801.

Causes of the American Revolution

The Stamp Act: The Stamp Act which was passed in 1765 was Parliament’s first serious attempt to assert governmental authority over the thirteen American colonies. It was an act for granting and applying certain stamp duties in the British occupied American colonies. The main purpose of these taxes was to help Britain pay for the troops stationed in North America for British victory in the Seven Year’s War. Not only the British colonies in America but even the British merchants and manufacturers opposed the act as the exports to the colonies were threatened by colonial economic problems exacerbated by the tax.

 

The Townshend Acts: The Townshend Acts were a series of acts passed in January 1767 by the Britain Parliament. These acts primarily included the Revenue Act of 1767 the Commissioners of Customs Act the Vice Admiralty Court Act the Indemnity Act and the New York Restraining Act. The sole purpose of this act was to raise revenue in American colonies and establish the precedent that the British Parliament had the right to tax them. The Townshend Acts met with a huge resistance from the colonies thus prompting the occupation of Boston by British troops in 1768.
The Tea Act and the Boston Tea Party:  The Boston Tea Party was one of the key events which led to the growth of American    Revolution. It was an outcome of the Tea Act imposed by British Parliament to restore the East India Company’s full refund on the 25% duty imposed for importing tea into Britain. It also permitted the company to export tea to the American colonies on its own account and led to a number of protests from the colonies. On December 16 177 a group of colonists boarded the three shiploads of taxed tea in Boston and destroyed the tea by throwing it into Boston Harbor. The event became famously known as the Boston Tea Party.

Other Causes: There were various other acts which prompted the people in British American colonies to revolt against the British Parliament. Amongst these were the Sugar Act the Quebec Act and the Boston Port Bill. According to the Boston Port Bill Boston Harbor was closed to all ships till Bostonians repaid the British East India Company for damages caused in the Boston Tea Party.
Course of the Revolution In 177 Samuel Adams created the first Committee of Correspondence and within a year the committee led to dozens of similar discussion groups throughout the colonies. These isolated groups also came together to facilitate the exchange of ideas provide invaluable information and organize colonial voices of opposition. In 1774 The Continental Congress was formed after the Boston Tea Party and Intolerable Acts. By 1775 colonial resentment in many cities and towns caused the organization of volunteer militias who began to drill openly in public common areas. On April 19 1775 a British commander dispatched troops to seize an arsenal of colonial militia weapons stored in Concord. The British arrived in Concord only to be ambushed by the Concord militia in the battle famously known as the War of Lexington and Concord. It was a success for Americans as more than 270 were killed from the British troops compared to approximately 100 Americans. In June 1775 the Battle of Bunker Hill was fought outside Boston in which the British ultimately emerged victorious. However they suffered over 1000 casualties prompting British officials to take the colonial unrest far more seriously than they had taken previously.

Yorktown and the Treaty of Paris

The outlook for General Washington and the Americans never looked better.

Although the American military was still enduring losses in 1780 the French were making a difference. The French navy was disrupting the British blockade. French commanders such as Lafayette and Rochambeau earned the respect and admiration of the American troops.

Although the British occupied much of the south they had still been unable to mobilize the local Loyalists. Grumbling in England grew louder over the wars expense and duration. The morale of Washingtons men was improving. The war was by no means over but the general could now see a bright side.

The Siege of Yorktown

Convergence of Continental forces on Yorktown
The French navy and the Continental Army conceived a daring plan to entrap Cornwallis in Yorktown. The plan worked: Cornwallis surrendered Yorktown and three weeks later the war was over.

The year 1781 found a large squadron of British troops led by Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown Virginia. Cornwallis hoped to keep his men in the Chesapeake town until fresh supplies and reinforcements could arrive from Britain. The French and the Americans conspired to capture the British before that could happen.

A French naval unit led by Admiral de Grasse headed north from the West Indies. Washingtons army was stationed near New York City at the time. Along with a French unit from Rhode Island Washingtons troops marched over 300 miles south toward Yorktown. Along the way he staged fake military maneuvers to keep the British off guard.

When Washington reached Virginia Americans led by Lafayette joined in the siege. The French navy kept the British out of Chesapeake Bay until Cornwallis was forced to surrender his entire unit of nearly 8000 troops on October 19 1781. The capture of the troops severely hampered the British war effort

Peace and the Treaty of Paris

Surrender of Cornwallis, John Trumbull
John Trumbull painted Surrender of Cornwallis in 1786-87. Although Trumbull did sketch the actual scene of surrender his painting was not meant to be a literal recording of the event. Instead he placed Cornwallis between the French and American forces to show their united effort against England.

Despite the American victory the British military continued to fight. But the Battle of Yorktown turned the British public against the war. The following March a pro-American Parliament was elected and peace negotiations began in earnest.

Benjamin Franklin John Adams and John Jay met with the British in the hopes of securing a peace treaty. The Americans played off European rivalries to reach a most favorable agreement.

In the 178 Treaty of Paris the British agreed to recognize American independence as far west as the Mississippi River. Americans agreed to honor debts owed to British merchants from before the war and to stop persecuting British Loyalists.

David had triumphed over Goliath. Independence was achieved at last!

Aftermath of the Revolution

Thomas Jefferson Benjamin Franklin and John Adams were some of the people who played an important role in the American Revolution. The revolution was followed by the Revolutionary War an assemblage of many events like the Battle of Saratoga (1777) France and United States form Franco-American Alliance (1778) entrance of Spain in the war against Britain (1779) and the Peace of Paris signed to end war (178). Ending the U.S. War of Independence The Treaty of Paris was signed in 178. However independence day in the U.S. is celebrated on Fourth of July the date on which America was declared independent in 1776.The revolution had a strong impact on the thirteen colonies of America Great Britain Ireland and France. It influenced the liberal thought flow throughout the American colonies. The last British troop departed from New York in November 178 leaving the nation independent and to be ruled by its own government.

Societal Impacts of the American Revolution

Driving away the Bishop

Freedom of religion was an important issue for the colonists as the Anglican Church was seen as yet another vehicle of oppression by England. In this cartoon a new Bishop arriving from England is driven away. The angry mob shouts: No Lords Spiritual or Temporal in New England!

Liberty republicanism and independence are powerful causes. The patriots tenaciously asserted American rights and brought the Revolution. The Revolution brought myriad consequences to the American social fabric. There was no Reign of Terror as in the French Revolution. There was no replacement of the ruling class by workers groups as in revolutionary Russia. How then could the American Revolution be described as radical? Nearly every aspect of American life was somehow touched by the revolutionary spirit. From slavery to womens rights from religious life to voting American attitudes would be forever changed.

Some changes would be felt immediately. Slavery would not be abolished for another hundred years but the Revolution saw the dawn of an organized abolitionist movement. English traditions such as land inheritance laws were swept away almost immediately. The Anglican Church in America could no longer survive. After all the official head of the Church of England was the British monarch. States experimented with republican ideas when drafting their own constitutions during the war. All these major changes would be felt by Americans before the dawn of the nineteenth century.

The American Revolution produced a new outlook among its people that would have ramifications long into the future. Groups excluded from immediate equality such as slaves and women would draw their later inspirations from revolutionary sentiments. Americans began to feel that their fight for liberty was a global fight. Future democracies would model their governments on ours. There are few events that would shake the world order like the success of the American patriotic cause.

Articles from the Treaty of Paris

Article 1: His Brittanic Majesty acknowledges the said United States viz. New Hampshire Massachusetts Bay Rhode Island and Providence Plantations Connecticut New York New Jersey Pennsylvania Maryland Virginia North Carolina South Carolina and Georgia to be free sovereign and independent states that he treats with them as such and for himself his heirs and successors relinquishes all claims to the government propriety and territorial rights of the same and every part thereof.

Article 2: And that all disputes which might arise in future on the subject of the boundaries of the said United States May be prevented it is hereby agreed and declared that the following are and shall be their boundaries viz.; from the northwest angle of Nova Scotia viz. that nagle which is formed by a line drawn due north from the source of St. Croix River to the highlands; along the said highlands which divide those rivers that empty themselves into the river St. Lawrence from those which fall into the Atlantic Ocean to the northwesternmost head of Connecticut River; thence down along the middle of that river to the forty-fifth degree of north latitude; from thence by a line due west on said latitude until it strikes the river Iroquois or Cataraquy; thence along the middle of said river into Lake Ontario; through the middle of said lake until it strikes the communication by water between that lake and Lake Erie; thence along the middle of said communication into Lake Erie through the middle of said lake until it arrives at the water communication between that lake and Lake Huron; thence along the middle of said water communication into Lake Huron thence through the middle of said lake to the water communication between that lake and Lake Superior; thence through Lake Superior northward of the Isles Royal and Phelipeaux to the Long Lake; thence through the middle of said Long Lake and the water communication between it and the Lake of the Woods to the said Lake of the Woods; thence through the said lake to the most northwesternmost point thereof and from thence on a due west course to the river Mississippi; thence by a line to be drawn along the middle of the said river Mississippi until it shall intersect the northernmost part of the thirty-first degree of north latitude South by a line to be drawn due east from the determination of the line last mentioned in the latitude of thirty-one degrees of the equator to the middle of the river Apalachicola or Catahouche; thence along the middle thereof to its junction with the Flint River thence straight to the head of Saint Marys River; and thence down along the middle of Saint Marys River to the Atlantic Ocean; east by a line to be drawn along the middle of the river Saint Croix from its mouth in the Bay of Fundy to its source and from its source directly north to the aforesaid highlands which divide the rivers that fall into the Atlantic Ocean from those which fall into the river Saint Lawrence; comprehending all islands within twenty leagues of any part of the shores of the United States and lying between lines to be drawn due east from the points where the aforesaid boundaries between Nova Scotia on the one part and East Florida on the other shall respectively touch the Bay of Fundy and the Atlantic Ocean excepting such islands as now are or heretofore have been within the limits of the said province of Nova Scotia.

Article 3: It is agreed that the people of the United States shall continue to enjoy unmolested the right to take fish of every kind on the Grand Bank and on all the other banks of Newfoundland also in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and at all other places in the sea where the inhabitants of both countries used at any time heretofore to fish. And also that the inhabitants of the United States shall have liberty to take fish of every kind on such part of the coast of Newfoundland as British fishermen shall use (but not to dry or cure the same on that island) and also on the coasts bays and creeks of all other of his Brittanic Majestys dominions in America; and that the American fishermen shall have liberty to dry and cure fish in any of the unsettled bays harbors and creeks of Nova Scotia Magdalen Islands and Labrador so long as the same shall remain unsettled but so soon as the same or either of them shall be settled it shall not be lawful for the said fishermen to dry or cure fish at such settlement without a previous agreement for that purpose with the inhabitants proprietors or possessors of the ground.

Article 4: It is agreed that creditors on either side shall meet with no lawful impediment to the recovery of the full value in sterling money of all bona fide debts heretofore contracted.

Article 5: It is agreed that Congress shall earnestly recommend it to the legislatures of the respective states to provide for the restitution of all estates rights and properties which have been confiscated belonging to real British subjects; and also of the estates rights and properties of persons resident in districts in the possession on his Majestys arms and who have not borne arms against the said United States. And that persons of any other decription shall have free liberty to go to any part or parts of any of the thirteen United States and therein to remain twelve months unmolested in their endeavors to obtain the restitution of such of their estates rights and properties as May have been confiscated; and that Congress shall also earnestly recommend to the several states a reconsideration and revision of all acts or laws regarding the premises so as to render the said laws or acts perfectly consistent not only with justice and equity but with that spirit of conciliation which on the return of the blessings of peace should universally prevail. And that Congress shall also earnestly recommend to the several states that the estates rights and properties of such last mentioned persons shall be restored to them they refunding to any persons who May be now in possession the bona fide price (where any has been given) which such persons May have paid on purchasing any of the said lands rights or properties since the confiscation. And it is agreed that all persons who have any interest in confiscated lands either by debts marriage settlements or otherwise shall meet with no lawful impediment in the prosecution of their just rights.

Article 6: That there shall be no future confiscations made nor any prosecutions commenced against any person or persons for or by reason of the part which he or they May have taken in the present war and that no person shall on that account suffer any future loss or damage either in his person liberty or property; and that those who May be in confinement on such charges at the time of the ratification of the treaty in America shall be immediately set at liberty and the prosecutions so commenced be discontinued.

Article 7: There shall be a firm and perpetual peace between his Brittanic Majesty and the said states and between the subjects of the one and the citizens of the other wherefore all hostilities both by sea and land shall from henceforth cease. All prisoners on both sides shall be set at liberty and his Brittanic Majesty shall with all convenient speed and without causing any destruction or carrying away any Negroes or other property of the American inhabitants withdraw all his armies garrisons and fleets from the said United States and from every post place and harbor within the same; leaving in all fortifications the American artilery that May be therein; and shall also order and cause all archives records deeds and papers belonging to any of the said states or their citizens which in the course of the war May have fallen into the hands of his officers to be forthwith restored and delivered to the proper states and persons to whom they belong.

Article 8: The navigation of the river Mississippi from its source to the ocean shall forever remain free and open to the subjects of Great Britain and the citizens of the United States.

Article 9: In case it should so happen that any place or territory belonging to Great Britain or to the United States should have been conquered by the arms of either from the other before the arrival of the said Provisional Articles in America it is agreed that the same shall be restored without difficulty and without requiring any compensation.

Article 10: The solemn ratifications of the present treaty expedited in good and due form shall be exchanged between the contracting parties in the space of six months or sooner if possible to be computed from the day of the signatures of the present treaty. In witness whereof we the undersigned their ministers plenipotentiary have in their name and in virtue of our full powers signed with our hands the present definitive treaty and caused the seals of our arms to be affixed thereto.

Done at Paris this third day of September in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three.

D. HARTLEY (SEAL)
JOHN ADAMS (SEAL)
B. FRANKLIN (SEAL)
JOHN JAY (SEAL)

– The Treaty of Paris (178)

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